Landscape and Nature Fine Art Photography by Canadian artist, Tricia McLellan.

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Glossary of Terms

 
Acid-free (PH Neutral)– a quality of inkjet paper and mat board where the maker has eliminated acids from its manufacture with the goal of increasing archival longevity. Ensures the paper and board are reasonably protected against atmospheric contaminants. Cotton is naturally acid-free.
 
Archival Quality- resistant to deterioration or loss of quality, allowing for a long life expectancy when kept in controlled conditions.
 
Alpha Cellulose– the purest form of cellulose and constituent of high quality inkjet paper. Alpha-cellulose paper and mat board is made from wood fibers, and is chemically purified to be acid-free. Often referred to as conservation quality.
 
Artist’s Print (Proof)– one of a small number of prints set aside from the edition for the artist’s use. Identified by AP beside the edition’s number.
 
Certificate of Authenticity– a written description of relevant information about the print that verifies its authenticity. The information may include the following: image identification number, title, artist’s name, printed image size, edition type (open, single, limited), total number in edition, assigned number, number of artist prints (proofs) include in edition size, print method, substrate type, ink type, additional information, date image was taken, date print was produced, artist’s signature and date of signature. The information may be different depending on the type of edition of the artist that is supplying the certificate. Also known as a CoA.
 
Colour Calibration– software and/or hardware used by the printmaker to adjust and coordinate colours between two or more digital devices.
 
Copyright– legal basis for the owner’s control of the usage of his or her images or artwork.
 
Cotton Rag– cotton rag (sometimes referred to only as cotton or rag) is a very high quality material developed from fibers found in cotton seeds. The cotton content ensures the “archival” qualities of Fine Art papers and mat board. Cotton is naturally acid and lignin-free. Often referred to as museum quality.
 
Crop– to remove part of an image.
 
Edition – the sum of identical prints of the same size on the same substrate produced from a single image printed at one time or on demand.
 
Fine Art– the products of human creativity; works of art collectively.
 
Fine Art Print– a print conceived and executed by an artist by means of a fine art print process.
 
Gallery Wrap– a method of stretching an artist’s canvas so that the canvas wraps around the sides and is secured to the back of the wooden frame.
 
Giclee – originally used for prints made from the early 1990’s on the Iris Graphics inkjet printers, but now applied to all archival standard inkjet prints including those from Epson UltraChrome printers.
 
Inkjet / Inkjet Printer– a digital printing technology that uses nozzles to spray ink onto a surface.
 
ISO 9706 Standard- The ISO 9706 standard, as described by the International Organisation for Standardization, “specifies the requirements for permanent paper intended for documents given in terms of minimum strength measured by a tear test, minimum content of substance (such as calcium carbonate) that neutralizes acid action measured by the alkali reserve, maximum content of easily oxidized material measured by the kappa number, maximum and minimum pH values of a cold water extract of the paper. “ Canson Infinity papers fulfill the requirements set by the ISO 9706 standards so as to maximise the permanency (or longevity) of the papers. A standard (NISO Z39.48, ISO 9706) that "establishes criteria for coated and uncoated paper that will last several hundred years without significant deterioration under normal use and storage conditions in libraries and archives."
 
Lignin– a compound derived from wood and present in paper, responsible for paper yellowing with age. Lignin is removed from the pulp in the manufacture of archival quality paper.Lignin is a complex polymer that makes cell walls in plants strong and rigid. Lignin left in papers made from wood pulp leads to chemical degradation. Most lignin can be removed from pulps during manufacturing.
 
Limited Edition Prints– a collection of prints where the artist limits the number of identical images that will be made. Limited editions are usually numbered and are most often signed.
 
Media– the common term used in digital printing for substrate; the surface to be printed on such as fine art papers, canvas, and other ink-jet coated materials.
 
Metamerism (colour) - a phenomenon that occurs when items that appear the same under one viewing condition appear different under other viewing conditions. For example, two color samples might appear the same in natural light, but not in artificial light.
 
Museum Glass– an anti-reflection picture framing glass for art. Along with its nearly invisible finish, it effectively blocks up to 99% of harmful indoor and outdoor UV light rays so framed pieces remain clearer and brighter for longer.
 
Museum Quality (Grade)– meets requirements set out by the ISO 9706 standards and the demands of galleries and museums for age resistant papers and mat board. Earth Framed Fine Art Photography website specifies “museum quality” as meaning the product is made from 100% cotton fibers which are acid-free, lignin-free, have a neutral pH and are buffered with calcium carbonate.
 
Non-glare Glass– a picture framing glass that is finished to diffuse reflected light. This process also gives the glass surface a matte finish. Non-glare glass cuts down on the amount of light reaching the print.
 
Open Edition Print – An edition or set of identical prints from a single master that is not limited in number.
 
Optical Brightening Agents (OBAs)- ultraviolet-absorbent dyes that re-emit light in the blue region, often added to paper to make it appear whiter and less yellow. As these properties diminish over time, archival quality papers typically do not include optical brightening agents. Also known as “fluorescent brighteners”.
 
Permanence- The inherent stability of material that allows it to resist degradation over time.
 
Pigment inks:The newest archival ink is made from 100% pigment; hence the name Pigment Ink, rather than Pigmented. Dye is unnecessary to create color brightness because a unique micro-dispersion of extremely fine pigment particles allows an extraordinary amount of colorant to be used. They print with practically no metamerism, and offer the best combined longevity and color gamut. Pigment inks are not affected by color enhancement papers in the way that dye inks are. Pigment inks are water and fade resistant.
 
Plexiglass– a transparent plastic used as a substitute for glass. Framed with plexiglass offer better impact resistance than glass.
 
Rag Paper– paper made with cotton or linen fiber, instead of or in addition to pulp.
 
Resolution– refers to the amount of data available for an image as applied to image size. A measurement of the “fineness” of digital detail, pixels per inch or pixels density.
 
Signed– a signed print is one signed in pencil or in another appropriate medium by the artist. The artist’s signature is for authenticity and added value.
 
Substrate– the material the receives the printed image. In digital printing the substrate carries an ink-jet coating and is often referred to as “digital media”.